NEBOSH IGC2 Revision Notes

NEBOSH IGC2 Revision Notes
4.9 (97.14%) 7 votes

NEBOSH IGC2 Revision Notes

NEBOSH IGC Revision Guide

NEBOSH (National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health) is a UK-based independent examination board delivering vocational qualifications in health, safety & environmental practice and management.

Related:  NEBOSH IGC Past Exam Papers PDF FREE Download

Element 1: Work Equipment Hazards and Control

Precautions in maintenance of Work Equipment

  • Use of permit to work
  • Isolation/locking off
  • Dissipation of stored energy
  • Segregation
  • Safe means of access
  • Use of PPE
  • Competent personnel
  • Ensure safe environment (allow to cool)

Hazards of maintenance work opposite of above plus

  • Chemicals
  • Biological
  • Asbestos
  • Hot or cold
  • Pressure to complete work

Mechanical Hazards of Machinery

  • Entanglement Traps
  • Impact Contact Ejection

ENTICE
Draw examples of entanglement, crushing, drawing in, shear Non-Mechanical Hazards of Machinery

Chemical/biological hazards Dust and fumes Ergonomics

  • Electricity
  • Fire/explosion
  • Hazardous substances
  • Manual handling
  • Noise
  • Radiation
  • Stability of machine
  • Temperature extremes
  • Ultra violet light
  • Vibration

Office machinery: – Photocopier and Shredder

Common hazards

  • Electrical Ergonomic
  • Noise
  • Stability of machine

Other Hazards

Photocopier  Document Shredder
Drawing in Drawing in to cutters
Trap between moving parts  Contact with cutters
Chemicals Dust
Ultra violet light

Manufacturing/Maintenance Machinery: Bench top grinder/Pedestal drill

  • Common Hazards
  • Electricity
  • Ergonomics
  • Dust
  • Stability of machine

Other hazards

Bench top grinder  Pedestal drill
Contact with rotating wheel Entanglement
Drawing into the trap between the tool rest and wheel Contact (Stabbing/puncture)
Ejected parts of wheel or workpiece Impact from an unsecured workpiece
Fire and sparks Cutting from swarf
Vibration Ejection of a broken bit or materials
Manual handling

Agricultural/Horticultural Machinery:- Cylinder mower and strimmer

Common Hazards

  • Biological e.g. animal droppings
  • Chemicals e.g. herbicides
  • Electrical
  • Fire/explosion if petrol
  • Ergonomics
  • Manual handling
  • Noise and vibration
  • Ejection of materials

Other Hazards

Cylinder mower  Strimmer
Contact with rotating blades Contact with cutter
Entanglement in blades Entanglement with cutter

Retail Machinery:- Waste Compactor/Checkout Conveyor
Common hazards

  • Electricity
  • Ergonomics
  • Manual handling

Other Hazards

Waste Compactor  Checkout Conveyor
Impact Drawing in traps
Crush Non-ionising radiation (Scanner)
Biological infection from waste

Construction Machinery:- Cement Mixer/Circular Saw 
Common Hazards

  • Dust
  • Electricity
  • Stability of machine
  • Ergonomics
  • Trapping between fixed and moving parts
  • Noise

Other Hazards

Cement Mixer  Circular Saw
Entanglement Drawing into the rotating blade
Chemicals Contact
Manual handling  Ejection of materials

Machinery Hierarchy of Controls

Fixed guards

  • Other guards or protection devices
  • Protective devices (Jigs, Holders, Push Sticks)
  • Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision

Fixed Guards:- A physical barrier not connected to machine controls which has no
moving parts and requires a tool to remove it

Fixed Guards

Advantages  Disadvantages
Minimal maintenance Not linked to machine controls
Only defeated by deliberate act No protection when removed
Only visual inspection  Access to dangerous parts when removed
May protect against other hazards e.g. noise, dust, ejection of materials  More difficult to remove not practical when frequent access required
Tends to be left unfixed when frequent access required
May hamper visibility

Interlock Guard:- Linked to the machine controls so that when the machine is in a dangerous condition the guard cannot be opened or opening the guard causes the machine to become safe.

Interlock Guard

Advantages  Disadvantages
Allow safe access for feeding materials Increase the complexity of the machine
Convenient to use  Dicult to test and maintain
Less likely to be deliberately defeated May need a brake or time delay
Speeds up operations  Components could fail in service
Regular maintenance required
May not fail to safety

Element 2:- Movement of People and Materials

Hazards to pedestrians

  • Slips, trips and falls on same level
  • Falls from height
  • Collisions with moving vehicles

Precautions for accidents on Staircases

  • Removal of obstructions
  • Provision of non-slip surfaces
  • Reflective edging
  • Adequate lighting
  • Effective maintenance
  • Use of signs
  • Width
  • Provision of handrails
  • Dimensions treads and risers
  • Landings
  • Consider disabled persons
  • Avoid the need to carry heavy objects up and down

Causes of accidents on staircases opposite of above
Accidents on walkways almost the same
Hazards of fork trucks

  • Overturning
  • Overloading
  • Loss of loads
  • Collision with other vehicles
  • Collision with pedestrians
  • Explosions and fire

Why can trucks overturn

  • Travelling on gradients that are too steep
  • Travelling forwards when descending slopes
  • Overloaded or unevenly loaded
  • Travelling over soft or uneven ground
  • Travelling over slippery surfaces
  • Travelling too fast
  • Striking kerbs or other edges
  • Not suitable for the task
  • Carrying loads at a dangerous height

To avoid overturning opposite of above

Parking of fork trucks

  • Put in neutral
  • Put on handbrake
  • Switch off engine
  • Remove key
  • Give key to appropriate person
  • Forks on floor
  • Mast slightly forward
  • Parked in suitable location
  • No blocking of exits

Additional hazards of electric fork trucks

  • Hydrogen gas released during battery charging
  • Electricity problems
  • Manual handling of liquids
  • Corrosive acids
  • They are quiet

Driver selection

  • Suitable age
  • Medical examination
  • Routine medical checks at regular intervals
  • Assessment after prolonged absences
  • Capable of Training
  • Refresher training

Safety of pedestrians in vehicle moving areas

  • Segregation
  • Suitable parking areas
  • Avoid reversing if possible
  • One-way systems
  • Avoid sharp or blind bends
  • Sufficiently wide entrances and gateways
  • Vision aids
  • Speed limits
  • Signallers (Banksmen)
  • Protection from fumes
  • Protection from materials falling off
  • High visibility jackets

Element 3:- Manual and Mechanical Handling Hazards

Manual Handling Injuries

  • External:- Cuts, bruises, abrasions, crush injuries
  • Internal:- Strains, Tears, Hernias

Hierarchy to reduce handling injuries

  • Avoid handling
  • Assess
  • Implement controls

Manual Handling Risk Assessment

Load

  • Weight
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Rigidity
  • Difficult to grasp
  • Unstable
  • Sharp, hot, cold etc.

Individual

  • Sex
  • Stature
  • Individual capability
  • Training
  • Persons assessment of own capability

Task

  • Holding away from trunk
  • Twisting
  • Stooping
  • Reaching upwards
  • Large vertical movement
  • Long carrying distances
  • Strenuous pushing or pulling
  • Unpredictable movement of loads
  • Repetitive handling
  • Insufficient rest or recovery
  • Work rate imposed by the process
  • Environment
  • Constraints on posture
  • Poor floors
  • Variations in levels
  • Hot/Cold/ humid conditions
  • Poor lighting

Correct Kinetic Handling Technique

  • Assess the load
  • Close to load as possible
  • Secure grip
  • Suitable feet position
  • Back straight
  • Bend the knees
  • Load close to the body
  • Smooth movement

Conveyors

Hazards  Precautions 
Trapping in drive mechanisms Guards, No loose clothing
Traps, Nips, Drawing in Pop out rollers, nip guards
Sharp edges Edge protection, eliminate edges
Items jamming conveyor Adequate design
Falling objects Edge guards, barriers
Riding or crossing conveyor Bridges, complete enclosure
 Impact with objects Helmets, padding
Noise Hearing protection
Manual handling Mechanical handling
Electrical hazards Suitable electrical equipment

Types of Cranes

  • Mobile
  • Tower
  • Gantry
  • Overhead

Cranes may fail because of

  • Overturning
  • Overloading
  • Unsuitable support or inadequate bases for crane
  • Loss of load
  • Failure of load
  • Lack of maintenance
  • Failure of load bearing part

Safe use of Cranes

  • Suitable crane
  • Suitable ground conditions
  • Use of outriggers
  • Avoidance of obstructions
  • Care near overhead power lines
  • Designated and protected area
  • Suitable and tested lifting tackle
  • Correct slinging technique
  • Competent personnel
  • Load near ground if travelling
  • Good visibility
  • Good communications
  • Suitable storage for fuels etc

Hazards opposite of above plus

Use of crane in high winds

Employee safety during lifting

  • Trained personnel
  • Properly trained equipment
  • Equipment has had statutory inspections
  • Warning of lift taking place
  • No employee to walk under load
  • Ensure load is secure
  • SWL of crane and tackle not exceeded
  • Lifted to correct height
  • Moved at appropriate speed
  • Adequate supervision
  • Lifting Accessories (Tackle)

Main Hazards

  • Overloading/used above safe working load
  • Incorrect use e.g. too wide an angle with chains
  • Insecure attachment of load
  • Damage to tackle
  • Incorrect slinging method
  • Failure to examine and inspect pre-use
  • Incompetent staff

Precautions opposite of above

Element 4:- Chemical and biological health hazards and
controls

Target Organs:- A part of the body which sustains an adverse effect when it is exposed to or by contaminated by a particular harmful agent

Examples:-  Mercury, Lead the brain
Asbestos, Ammonia the Lungs

Bodies defences against dust

  • The hair and wetness of the nose
  • The change of direction of the larynx
  • Sneezing and coughing
  • The hair cells in the respiratory tract
  • Tears and blinking of the eyes

Dermatitis

Symptoms:- Blisters, Inflammation, Dryness, reddening, cracking of skin

Protective measures against dermatitis

  • Eliminate the substance
  • Substitution of the substance
  • Barrier creams,
  • Good hygiene practices
  • PPE

Routes of entry in the body

  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Absorption
  • Direct entry
  • Injection

Acute effects:- Adverse health effects resulting from single or short term exposure which is usually reversible e.g. Alcohol

Chronic:- Adverse health term effects resulting from prolonged or repeated exposure leading to a gradual often irreversible effects. e.g. liver disease caused by Alcohol

Classification of Hazardous Substances

Irritant:- Non-corrosive substances which through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with skin or mucous membrane may cause inflammation e.g. Petrol

Corrosive:- Substances which on contact with living tissue may destroy it by burning e.g. acids

Harmful:- Substances which if swallowed, inhaled or penetrate the skin may cause damage to health

Very Toxic:- A poisonous substance which in low quantities may cause death, acute or chronic damage to health

Toxic:- A poisonous substance which in low quantities may cause death, acute or chronic damage to health

Carcinogenic:- Substances which cause disorders to cell growth that may lead to cancer

Information on Manufacturers Safety data sheets

  • Identification of the substance
  • Manufacturers information
  • Composition of the ingredients
  • First-aid precautions
  • Fire-fighting measures
  • Handling and storage
  • PPE
  • Disposal considerations
  • Transport information
  • Regulatory information

Grab Sampler (Chemical stain detector tube)

Draw it

Advantages  Disadvantages 
Low cost Inaccurate
Takes little time  Positioning of tube
Immediate result Only a snap shot
Little training Inecffiient
Information during spillage  Chemical use only
Good for coarse indication Substance specific

Hazardous substance risk assessment 5 steps as normal

Control of health hazards

Eliminate

Reduce by substitution

Isolate:-

  • Total Enclosure
  • Segregate the people

Control

  • Engineering Control (LEV)
  • Maintenance of controls
  • Change the work pattern or method
  • Hygiene and housekeeping

PPE

Discipline

Emergency controls for spillage, air pollution etc.

  • Ventilation systems alarmed
  • PPE
  • Emergency showers, eye wash facilities
  • Booms, sawdust, spillage procedures
  • Evacuation procedures
  • Isolation of the area
  • Evacuation of the employees at risk
  • PPE for staff involved in clear up

Local Exhaust Ventilation

Main Parts:- Hood, Ducting, Filter, Fan

Draw it

LEV becomes inefficient because of:-

  • Blocked filters
  • Lack of maintenance
  • Position of hood
  • Unauthorised alterations
  • Broken ducting
  • Wear of fan blades
  • Incorrect settings
  • Increased  contaminant level
  • Inadequate design
  • Failure of operators to use it

Checks opposite of above

Specific Agents

Ammonia

Strongly alkaline colourless gas with a pungent odour. It is a corrosive and can cause irritation to the eyes and upper respiratory tract in small concentrations. Large concentrations can cause blindness and fluid in the lungs. Eye protection and respiratory protection essential.

Asbestos

Main types:- Blue, Brown and  White

Diseases:- Asbestosis, Lung cancer, Mesothelioma

Uses

  • Pipe lagging
  • Wall and roof panels
  • Ceiling tiles
  • Textured coatings
  • Insulation materials
  • Gaskets
  • Brake linings

Carbon Dioxide

Colourless and odourless gas which is heavier than air. Low levels increases the rate of respiration and high levels depress the rate of respiration leading to unconsciousness and even death. Produced in fermentation process e.g. breweries.

Carbon Monoxide

Colourless and odourless and tasteless gas. Found where incomplete combustion occurs e.g. boilers, vehicle exhausts
Inhalation of the gas results in headache, drowsiness, flushed “pink” appearance and ultimately asphyxiation

Chlorine

A greenish toxic gas with a pungent smell which is highly irritant to the respiratory system.

Dusts

Nuisance dust can cause asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and conditions such as asbestos,
Silicosis.

Dust Identification

  • Visual signs of dust
  • Dust lamps
  • Static or personal sampling
  • Health surveillance

Control measures for dust

  • Elimination
  • Substitution e.g. pellets instead of powders
  • Enclosure of the process
  • Local exhaust ventilation
  • Vacuuming instead of sweeping
  • Damping down
  • Limiting time of exposure
  • Limiting numbers exposed
  • Respiratory protective equipment

Lead
A heavy, soft and easily worked metal. Can enter body by eating contaminated food but usually by breathing fumes or dust.

Acute lead poisoning can result in nausea, headaches, effects on the nervous system sometimes death in severe cases.

Organic Solvents
These dissolve other substances and are also used as cleaning and degreasing agents. They are volatile and evaporate quickly at room temperature so their vapours can be drawn into the
lungs.

Acute effects are irritation of the eyes, skin, throat and lungs. Effects may be headaches, nausea, dizziness and loss of consciousness and in extreme cases in death.

Isocyanates

Organic compounds widely used in industry for products such as spray painting of vehicles and production of polyurethane rubbers and foams.

Inflammation of the nasal passages and throat can lead to asthma.

Silica

Found in sand, granite etc. and the health hazard comes from breathing it in which can lead to the lung disease silicosis.

Biological Agents

Leptospirosis or Weils disease

Bacteria found in the urine of female rats and the most common source is in river water, sewers etc. Enters the body through puncture of the skin or ingestion. Attacks the kidneys and liver causing high temperatures and may be fatal.

Legionella

An airborne bacterium found in water sources such as cooling towers, stagnant water etc. It is caused by inhalation of airborne droplets of water containing the legionella bacteria leading to a form of pneumonia i.e. breathing difficulties, high temperature and possible death. Those at greatest risk are middle aged smokers or elderly people with chest problems. Control measures involve temperature control and monitoring, avoiding “dead legs” legs in pipework, biocide treatment and effective cleaning and maintenance.

Hepatitis

A disease of the liver and can cause high temperatures, nausea and jaundice. It is caused by hazardous substances or a virus. Health workers and those handling bodily fluids are most at risk. The control measures involve inoculation and good hygiene practices.

Control measures for Biological Hazards

  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Water treatment
  • Vermin control
  • Containment of the biological agent
  • Avoidance of sharp implements
  • Proper disposal of contaminated waste
  • Immunisation
  • Persona hygiene
  • PPE

Waste Storage

  • Sufficient storage area
  • Clearly the label the storage area
  • Ensure storage area secure
  • Protect storage area with bunds etc.
  • Store different types of waste separately
  • Never store incompatible waste together
  • Select appropriate containers
  • Keep quantities of waste to a minimum
  • Protect waste from the elements

Element 5:- Physical and psychological hazards

Ergonomics

The study of the relationship between workers and their environment, work equipment and
work task.
Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULDs)

 

Leave a Reply